Research & Data Support Report
FOUNDATIONS OF PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY
Public health professionals must be able to analyze policy through various lenses such as federal, state, and local government, public health agencies, community partnerships, media, and the public. Learners analyze existing health policy for its validity (empirical evidence), community health processes/strategies, and communications as well as social, economic, ethical and spiritual implications for fulfilling the core value and mission of public health – to promote health equity and reduce health disparities for all communities.
Part 1 – Policy Selection and Investigation
- Review World Health Organization Healthy People 2020 from which to select a public health policy. Consider contacting a local or state health agency that specializes in their health-related policy to interview and use information in your investigation.
- Describe the specific public health issue underlying the policy that you are investigating.
- Describe the health-related policy components, including a summary of the: Key advocates associated with the formation of the health-related policy (government agencies, advocacy groups, scientific organizations, media, public)
- Key opponents associated with the formation of the health-related policy (government agencies, advocacy groups, scientific organizations, media, public)
Part 2 – Critical Analysis
- Evaluate the application of research and data supporting the formulation of the public health policy. Review evidence that exists in peer reviewed literature on the policy
- Weigh thoroughness and soundness (methodology) of empirical evidence in the research
- Evaluate policy approach (pros and cons) based on your interpretation of available resources.
- Evaluate the influence and impact of global, national, state, local on the health-related policy including the influence of: social action, media advocacy, public health communications, interest groups, community agencies, government and political forces
- Evaluate the public health and significance of policy by reviewing evidence that exists in peer reviewed literature for:reducing morbidity/mortalityimproving social well-being/quality of life of communities.
Part 3 – Reflection & Application
- Reflect on socio-cultural ethical implications of the health-related policy, including a faith worldview.What are legal, social and economic implications of the policy?
- What perspectives does a faith world view lend in terms of the health-related policy for the populations affected by the public health problem?
- Reflect on your personal-value based position of the health-related policy, including how the policy: relates to environmental justice (i.e., the importance of improving and maintaining a healthful environment – EPA definition) addressing health disparities
Parts 1, 2, and 3
- A minimum of 2-3 scholarly resources per part
- Integrate core concepts form readings and lectures
- APA formatting Title page
- Reference page
- Check for originality
Part 1 – Policy Selection and Investigation
- A description of the health issue underlying the health policy
- A description of the health policy, including a summary of sides to the health policy
Part 2 – Critical Analysis
- An evaluation of the evidence supporting the formulation of hte policy using research and data.
- An evaluation of the public health impact and significance of policy on reducing morbidity/mortality, well-being/quality of life, health disparities/health equity
- An evaluation of legal, social, and economic costs of the policy
Part 3 – Reflection & Application
- A reflection on socio-cultural ethical implications of the policy, including a faith worldview, including sources of evidence (biblical principles, theological doctrine, scripture)
- Propose your own personal-value based recommendation of the stance of the policy, including recent, authorative support for your rational for your recommendation.
Part one: Policy selection and investigation
Policy: Operationalizing people-centered health systems
Health systems frameworks tend to highlight the specific importanceto the governance in the explanation of how this particular system works. This will also emphasize the means of achieving the population health outcomes. This health policy is based on the interest of the health systems governance and on the exportation of the fact that this good governance leads to the improved outcomes in the health sector(Satcher, 2010). The people-centered health systems over the past have mostly been quite successful as a result of the poor governance. The aspect of the health management is considerably hard to actualize from the fact it is technical to account for the roles and himparticular relations of a significantly broader range of the actors. Also, the good governance that is related to the implementation of the people-centered health systems is even harder to achieve due to the different patterns of the decentralization of the different settings (World Health Organization 2015).
This gives rise to the multiple health actors and with the various roles within the various political, socio-economical and the cultural spectrum. The operationalization of the people-centered system calls for specific health gains in the variouspriority areas to provide a drive policies. It also requires means of ensuring that the universal coverage for the primary services that contribute the most is achieving the specific health gain for the investment. This systems operational lastly calls for the removal of the different health barriers that limit the coverage of the core services. The operationalization of the people-centered health systems in otherworld can be viewed as a means of identification and the removal of the better health bottlenecks that need to be tacked to ensure a maximumenergy with the different improvement priority(Fisher, 2015).
The formation of this policy relate to various components of the health policies: the government agencies are considerably instrumental in the operationalization of the people-centeredhealth systems. The role of the government in governance that offers a platform and support the different policy activities such as the provision of health-relatededucation and a conducive environment for the actualization of this policyare inevitable. Thisinvolves the characterization of the concerns of governance in the requirements of the public goods, ethnic and in the provisions of the better rule of law for the implementation of this policy is necessary.
The different advocacy groups in the actualization of this policy specific including the concerned community where every center for the implementation of the policy takes place is essential. The community is one important component for the operationalizing the people focused health systems since this is the most directly concerned party(Fisher, 2015). Also, the implementation this policy focuses on the collective pooling idea of the community which therefore calls for the coming together of the community to achieve this aspect of thedevelopment of the health systems. This policy also involves the component of the scientific group such as the CDC which works with the different communities in the various parts of the world in achieving this vision of the 2020 healthy people(Satcher, 2010). Lastly, the role of the media to inform, educate and engage the community and the other stakeholders of the progress and the different needs for the governance of the policy. This specifically concerns the potential impact of the health system actors functioning at the different level of the policy implementation (World Health Organization, 2013).
Part 2Critical Analysis
From the applied research and the data that promoted the formation of the health policy on the operation of the people-centered health systems, it is clear that the several types of research and data used to arrive at the need for this policy leans on its advantages. This, however, happens without a clear picture of the need for policy evaluation into finer details of its formation. Also, the empirical research and data offer little understanding of the health system governance framework that prompts the development of this policy(Fisher, 2015). Such policy formulation is attached to the efficiency, equity and the risk protection of the policy formation. Previous research indicates that the elaboration of the policy stars with the satisfying of the outcomes of the health system governance and this can be used in exploring the performance of the governments in the health systems management(World Health Organization 2015).
It suggests that the government failed in the provisos of the primary health care to the low and the middle-income countries call for the need for the multi-level governance in which a particular failure at a single level can be in this way assuaged ate the other different level of management. This can include the non-governmental health system actors. This information that is provided by the reach on the people-centered health systems indicates a that the use of the multilevel governance framework as a guide for thinking in analysis of the primary care management can act to improve individual county understanding, evaluation and help is designing of the people centers health systems in the low-income countries where comprehensive care is considered unaffordable to may citizens (Fielding, 2011).
The empirical evidence methodology used in the research is significantly detailed enough to inform on the formation of the policy. The researchers conducted a proper analysis on the importance of the policy and its applicability based on the component that is most important. Also, the data develop a considerably sound understanding on the framework for the governance of the policy. The research methodology considered empirical analyses of the different regions of the world where the application of the people-centered health systems have succeeded and failed develops a comparative evidence of the two situations. Thisis based on the governance system of the health of the different countries under consideration.
The policy approach in the research is based on health system governance in the low and the middle-income countries than the other key component of the health systems(Satcher, 2010).This particle approach as the advantage of enhancing an understanding of most of the health systems through the involvement of the members of the community and the other stakeholders such as the scientific groups and the media. These are the key places in the development to this health policy. As such the approach used in this research for the formation of the health system is likely to provide stronger oversight as well as exert a greater influence on the decisions of policy structures and implementation (World Health Organization 2015). Health systems are regarded as people-centered when the potential role and the different capabilities and the needs and people preferences such as health worker health managers and community groups are well recognized and given priority in the common operons of the health systems. To achieve this, there is a need for the governance approaches which are used in this research for the formation of the people-centered health system. However, there is a disadvantage which is associated with the plan that deals mostly with the system governance and pays little attention to the other components of the policy as this may result in the loss of the policy directions (World Health Organization, 2013).
The existence of the policy is not in isolation. There is a considerably broader spectrum of influences both from the global and the local health-related policies. The application of these, especially in mort aspect, tend to conflict with the interest of the other global and local policies relating to the healthcare. For instance, the formation of the people-centered healthcare has a system that works for the professional benefit of the domesticsystems in many regions of implementation. The pursuit of the specific and considerably measurable health gains should, therefore, drive the actions of the government at the level of intersectional, the managers and the different local systems that are involved. The social and the political influences also affect the implementation of the people-centeredhealth system. This side of the conflict of interest that the different stakeholders of the policy which is WHO organizations and the various regions leaderships have.For instance, the European regions health priorities could be one which supports the formation of the system while the other part of the world has different social aspects that discourage the development of this plan. The various community agencies and the public health communications also have the role of influencing their members to embrace the implementation of this policy and therefore theirimpact is considered crucial in the health system formations.
The policy is considerable significance in the achieving the proper global healthcare by 2020. Good governance and the management of the health care isessentialfor the delivery of the core cost-efficient and improved health care by the year 2020. The policy will also be necessary for the removal of the bottlenecks to the better global healthcare through making possible for every person to access quality healthcare through people-centered systems. It is so important In making it well of the evidence-informed core services to the policy makers and health professional which in-terms will be significant for the improvement of the global health systems (Fielding, 2011).
Part 3 – Reflection & Application
The operationalization of the people-centered health system has several ethical implications relating to the different world faiths. According to the Christianity faith and the Muslim doctrine, God is the sole provider of life and life starts and ends with Him. There is influences the development of the understanding that people-centered health system is attached to the process of the healthcare by the Supreme Being. However, according to these doctrines, the people-centered health systems is only possible with effective leadership which removes the several barriers that may often prevent several healthcare programs(Satcher, 2010). Mot religious factors based on the faith patenting to health consider the people-centered health systems a possibility with considerably good governance.
As such lack of his leadership which is provided by God may affectseveral healthcare relating policies. The implementation of the system in the different parts of the world may have to the variousimplications of the different societies that may affect the view of the community members on the healthcare systems. It is the responsibility of the various members of the religious doctrines to partner with the policymakers and the governance team to mobilize the people towards embracing the operation of the people-centered health system(World Health Organization 2015).
The implementation of any policy by the WHO calls for specific, measurable gains to be prioritizedto drive the actions of the different government at the intersectional level, different countries health ministers and health system manages as well as the public. A proper policy implementation concerning health systems for healthy 2020 starts with the selection of the priority areas for improving the health rather than just focusing on the national health plans and the strategies of the possible results. The health systems should be compatible with the different health needs of the community rather than just being universal(World Health Organization, 2013). However, the people-centered system of health systems needs to accommodate the greater populations of low and middle-income countries with the proper governance to achieve overall World health organization healthy 2020.
To scale up the coverage with type core services for the greater gain, the policy needs to be proactive on the needs of the individual when it comes to the provision of better health systems. The necessity of the established evidence base that will show the WHO that most of the advantages of the health systems reach the people who deserve and are need to benefit from this health system. Applications of the best follow-up procedures by the WHO in the different regions of the world for the implementation of the health system iscriticalfor the promotion of a better policy which incorporates all the sectors and benefits everyone in the process.
World Health Organization.(2015). World health statistics 2015.World Health Organization.
World Health Organization.(2013). Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013-2020.
Koh, H. K., Piotrowski, J. J., Kumanyika, S., & Fielding, J. E. (2011). Healthy people: a 2020 vision for the social determinants approach. Health Education & Behavior, 38(6), 551-557.
Satcher, D. (2010). Include social determinants of health approach to reduce health inequities. Public Health Reports, 125(Suppl 4), 6.
Etats-Unis. Department of health, human services, Centers for disease control, prevention (Etats-Unis), & National Center for health statistics (Etats-Unis). (2013). Healthy people 2010: aFinal review. Government Printing Office.
Sallis, J. F., Owen, N., & Fisher, E. (2015).Ecological models of health behavior. Health behavior: theory, research, and practice. 5th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 43-64.